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Archive for March, 2014

This is the full text of Andrei Zubov article in the Opinions Column of the Russian publication  Vedomosti   –

Apologies for the poor translation.

He is a very brave man and warrants our full support.

Friends. We are on the doorstep. We are not on the verge of introducing a new subject of the Russian Federation. We are on the verge of complete destruction of the system of international treaties, economic chaos and political dictatorship. We are on the verge of war with our closest, kindred peoples of Ukraine, a sharp deterioration in relations with Europe and America, on the verge of a cold, and, perhaps, a hot war with them.

After all, it already was. Austria. Starting in March 1938 the Nazis wish to round off your Reich by other German state. People are not very eager this – nobody infringes nobody discriminates. But the idea of Greater Germany giddy radicals – local Nazis. To put an end to the dispute about the fate of Austria, her Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg Alois announces March 13 plebiscite. But the Nazis in  Berlin and  Vienna is not satisfied. And suddenly people will be against the Anschluss? Chancellor Schuschnigg forced to resign on March 10, in his place, the president appoints the leader of the local Nazi Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and German divisions are already included in the meantime in the Austrian city on the invitation of the new chancellor, which he learned from the newspapers. Austrian troops are surrendering. Enthusiastically greets people or Nazis or holed up in exasperation home, or urgently runs in Switzerland. Austrian Cardinal Innittser welcomes and blesses Anschluss … From March 13 arrests began. Chancellor Schuschnigg was arrested the day before. Plebiscite held on April 10. In Germany, for unification with Austria voted 99.08% in Austria itself, became Ostmark German Empire – 99.75%. October 1, 1938 and were reunited with half-Czech Sudetenland Germany, March 22, 1939 – Lithuanian Klaipeda region, turned into a day in the German Memel. In all these lands really lived mostly Germans, throughout many of them really wanted to connect with Hitler’s Reich. Overall this reunion was held with much fanfare and shouts of jubilation in the Madding Crowd chauvinistic frenzy and with the connivance of the West.

” We must not deceive, and especially should not be reassuring small weak states, promising them protection from the League of Nations and the corresponding steps from our side – said Neville Chamberlain in the British Parliament February 22, 1938 – because we know that nothing kind can be taken. ”

And absolutely nothing said Adolf Hitler March 23, 1939 from the balcony at the Theater Square just attached Memel. Two hours before he swam theatrically on board the newest battleship ” Germany “in the port of Memel. ” … The Germans are not going to anyone in the world to do anything wrong, but it was necessary to stop the suffering for 20 years from the Germans were subjected to the whole world … Memel Germany Germans had once cast adrift when resigned in disgrace and dishonor. Today Memel Germans … again become citizens of the mighty Reich, a determined to take over their own destiny, even if it’s not like half of the world. ”

And everything seemed so radiant. AndHitler’s glory shone overhead. And before the world was in awe of the Great Germany. Accession countries and areas to the Reich without firing a shot, without a drop of blood – is not brilliant politician Fuhrer?

Six years later Germany was defeated, millions of its sons killed millions of her daughters dishonored, its cities razed to the ground, its  cultural values ​​, accumulated over centuries, turned to dust. From Germany were separated 2/5 of and the remaining zoned and occupied by the victorious powers. And shame, shame, shame has covered the head of the Germans. And it all started so radiantly!

Friends! History repeats itself. In Crimea, Russian really live. But does anyone oppressed them there, is not there, they were second-class citizens, without the right to the language in the Orthodox faith? From whom they must protect the soldiers of the Russian army? Who attacked them? Entering foreign troops on the territory of another state without the state’s permission – is aggression. Capture Parliament persons in uniform unmarked – this outrage. Make any decisions Crimean Parliament in such circumstances – a farce. Parliament first captured by the pro-Russian prime minister changed, and then the new prime minister asked Russia for help when aides already here, already control the peninsula as day. As two peas similar to the Anschluss in 1938 and even a referendum-plebiscite a month under friendly bayonets. There – April 10, here – March 30.

Whether the Russian government miscalculated the risks of this incredible adventure? ‘m Sure not. As Adolf Aloizovich in his time not counted. Be counted – not rushed the bunker in April 1945 under the Russian bombs would not ate a vial of poison.

If the West does not go as Chamberlain with Daladier in 1938 and introduce a total embargo on the purchase of Russian energy and freeze Russian holdings in their banks? The Russian economy, and so agonizing, collapse in three months. And here begins the distemper, in comparison with which seem maidan garden paradise.

And if the Crimean Tatars, who are categorically against Russian authorities, who remember that this government has done to them in 1944 and did not start as a back up to 1988, when the Crimean Tatars to seek protection of their interests to the same faith and half-Turkey? After all, Turkey is not the three seas, and on the other side of the same Black. And Crimea held longer than Russia – had four centuries. Turks – not Chamberlain and Daladier not they in July 1974, protecting their fellow occupied 40% of the territory of Cyprus and, ignoring all the protests, still support the so-called Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which no one recognizes them apart. Maybe someone would like to have the Turkish Republic of South Crimea? But if the hot head of the Crimean Tatars will rise to fight, the Muslim radicals from around the world will gladly join them, especially from the North Caucasus and the Volga region. Do not bring me with a storm ravaged the Crimean resorts in our Russian house? What we – their little acts of terrorism?

Finally, acquiring the Crimea, torn internal strife, we will forever lose the people of Ukraine – Russian Ukrainians will not forgive this betrayal ever. What, you think, would not be that this is too much, peremeletsya – flour is? Do not expect luxury Russian chauvinists. At the end of the XIX century the Serbs and Croats considered themselves one people, only divided by the border, denomination and graphics alphabet. They strove for unity – how many books were written about it then they, smart, good books. And now there are few people, so angry at each other, both Serbs and Croats. How much blood was spilled between them, and all for some pieces of land, some towns and Dolinka in which they could live together happily and richly. Could, but that failed. Greed to fraternal brothers of the land made enemies. And in everyday life unless it does not happen? Is it worth it to lose the brotherly people forever because ghostly lust? Yes and split Russian church was already inevitable. Her Ukrainian half secede from Moscow forever.

But even more terrible defeat will result in success for the Kremlin annexation of the Crimea. If everything is easy to get, then tomorrow in Russian population needs Russian region of Kazakhstan, there, staring, and South Ossetia and Abkhazia, and Northern Kyrgyzstan. For Austria, the Sudetenland followed for Sudetenland – Memel Memel for – Poland, in Poland – France, for France – Russia. It all started with a small …

Friends! We need to recover and stop. Our policies involve our people in a terrible, terrifying adventure in. Historical experience tells us that nothing would cost so much. We should not be carried out, as he was commanded at the time the Germans to the promises of Goebbels and Hitler. For the sake of peace in our country, for the sake of its real revival for peace and amity on this Russian historical spaces, now divided into many states, say ” no “to this insane and, most importantly, completely unnecessary aggression.

We have lost so many lives in the twentieth century that the only true to our principle should be proclaimed by the great Solzhenitsyn: saving people. Preservation of the people, and not picking up the land. Earth is only collected blood and tears.

No blood, no tears, we no longer need!

Author – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Andrei Zubov , executive editor of ” History of Russia, the twentieth century “

Читайте далее: http://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/news/23467291/andrej-zubov-eto-uzhe-bylo#ixzz2uztiLyir

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reblogged from http://www.rferl.org/content/ukraine-explainer-budapest-memorandum/25280502.html
With tensions rising in Crimea and pro-Russian forces controlling the peninsula’s main airports, Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk has called on Russia to “not violate the Budapest Memorandum.” So what is the “Budapest Memorandum” and what does it have to do with Crimea?What exactly is the “Budapest Memorandum”?

The “Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances” is a diplomatic memorandum that was signed in December 1994 by Ukraine, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

It is not a formal treaty, but rather, a diplomatic document under which signatories made promises to each other as part of the denuclearization of former Soviet republics after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Under the memorandum, Ukraine promised to remove all Soviet-era nuclear weapons from its territory, send them to disarmament facilities in Russia, and sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Ukraine kept these promises.

In return, Russia and the Western signatory countries essentially consecrated the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine as an independent state. They did so by applying the principles of territorial integrity and nonintervention in 1975 Helsinki Final Act — a Cold War-era treaty signed by 35 states including the Soviet Union — to an independent post-Soviet Ukraine.

Which principles in the Helsinki Final Act, reiterated in the “Budapest Memorandum,” are relevant to the current situation in the Crimea?

In the “Budapest Memorandum,” Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States promised that none of them would ever threaten or use force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine. They also pledged that none of them would ever use economic coercion to subordinate Ukraine to their own interest.

They specifically pledged they would refrain from making each other’s territory the object of military occupation or engage in other uses of force in violation of international law.

All sides agreed that no such occupation or acquisition will be recognized as legal and that the signatories would “consult in the event a situation arises which raises a question concerning these commitments.”

Is there anything legally binding about the “Budapest Memorandum” regarding Russia’s obligations to respect Ukraine’s territorial integrity?

“That’s actually a much more complex question than it may sound. It is binding in international law, but that doesn’t mean it has any means of enforcement,” says Barry Kellman is a professor of law and director of the International Weapons Control Center at DePaul University’s College of Law.

“The ‘Budapest Memorandum’ follows the Helsinki Final Act and essentially reiterates its provisions. There are confidence building measures and then a host of other broader obligations – primarily negative obligations. Don’t interfere.”

Kellman concludes that there are a host of other sources of international law that oblige Russia to respect Ukraine’s territorial integrity — including the provisions of the CSCE treaty and the UN Charter.

 

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